“the Evacuation of Children in World War Two Was a Great Success.” How Far Do the Sources You Have Used Support This Interpretation of Evacuation in World War Two?
1439 WordsDec 13th, 20106 Pages
“The evacuation of children in World War Two was a great success.” How far do the sources you have used support this interpretation of evacuation in World War Two? (25 marks)
Before the War in September 1939, the government understood the risk of air raids and the danger they bring upon major cities in England. Plans for evacuation started as early as 15 years before in 1924; the Air Raid Precaution Committee (ARPC) identified London as the main target, with children as the biggest concern. The government identified, after the ARPC produced a report on the potential disasters of air raid attacks in 1925, that maintaining civilian morale was a priority, and that the fear of bombing would bring it down. So, to prevent low morale (and also…show more content…
To further justify evacuation and therefore show its success in keeping evacuees safe, source six shows casualties in Liverpool. It shows that the death rate was generally over 100 and even in May 1941, at 1453. Again, this justifies the need to evacuate and the safety achieved through evacuation.
Finally, sources three shows the success in evacuation as the sources show effectiveness and good organisation as a success of evacuation. This encompasses overall efficiency and pre-evacuation planning. To be able to transport the huge amount of 1million (intended 4million) to the countryside required this efficiency and overall, sources three and source two mention the efficiency and order of the transport (trains) and organisation in the countryside. In source three, a newspaper article from Kent, says that the departures were efficient, reflecting that it was seen to that ‘each child got milk and food’, and followed up with ‘no confusion’. Even source two, though showing evacuation in a negative way, also comments that the trains ‘ran to time’ and that evacuation came ‘complete with teachers’. Having teachers is shown in sources one, three and four as well. In source one, it is shown as a teacher with a group of children, in three there are mentioned ‘teachers in charge’ and in four, the graph shows about 103,000 teachers were evacuated. The fact that they were able to organise having teachers for the children,
Here are some facts about the evacuation of children and mothers from cities to the countryside which took place in Britain during World War 2.
- The evacuation of children from cities to the countryside in order to keep them safe from air raids began in September 1939.
- Many of London’s children were sent to Wales, Cornwall or Devon. Children were also evacuated to other rural areas, such as East Anglia.
- The children who were evacuated were known as evacuees and the families they stayed with in the countryside were called host families.
- Several thousand children were evacuated overseas to Canada, Australia and the United States.
- The children travelled on special trains from the city to their host families. Many were too young to understand exactly what was happening and many thought they were going on a holiday. Most of the evacuees were sad to say goodbye to their parents and homes.
- The evacuees were all given a gas mask and they had food for the journey to the countryside. Every child had a label pinned to their clothing. This label stated the child’s name, home address, school and destination.
- Although some evacuees didn’t enjoy their evacuation, many of the children adapted really well to country life. They became friends with the local children and, in many cases, stayed in touch with their host family after the end of World War 2.
- It wasn’t just children who were evacuated. Mothers of very young children, pregnant women, disabled people and some teachers were evacuated. The evacuated teachers stayed in the same village as their evacuated classes.
- Efforts were made to keep evacuated brothers and sisters together, but this wasn’t always possible.
- Evacuees and their parents would keep in touch by writing letters to each other.
- Many of the children who were evacuated in 1939 returned home by 1940 because Britain wasn’t heavily bombed by the Germans in the first months of WW2. When the Blitz began children were sent back to the countryside.
- It is estimated that over 3 million people (mostly children) were evacuated during World War 2.
- The official in charge of finding a home for the evacuees was called the Billeting Officer.
What next? Discover more World War 2 facts, learn about how those who remained in Britain’s cities sheltered during air raids, or find out about the Battle of Britain.