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Display Issues – FAQ



  1. Q: Why are some character shapes distorted in Windows XP?
  2. Q: How can I confirm that the required fonts are installed?
  3. Q: Why does my text sometimes appears as boxes when the font is changed?
  4. Q: Why does my text sometimes appears as question marks?
  5. Q: Most characters in my font are OK, but some display as a box or display from some other font.
  6. Q: Characters 128 (x80), 142 (x8E), 158 (x9E), and/or 183 (xB7) display as a box or or display from some other font.
  7. Q: In Microsoft Word 2000 or later, characters 157 (x9D), 253 (xFD) and 254 (xFE) don't show up at all, the font changes to something like Tahoma, and the typing cursor changes.
  8. Q: Character 211 (xD3) displays as the pair of characters 237 (xED) + 210 (xD2)
  9. Q: In Microsoft Publisher 2003, various characters from 131 (x83) to 159 (x9F) are displayed from some other font than the one selected. These display properly in Word 2003.
  10. Q: Using my custom font, miscellaneous (other than already mentioned) characters are not showing up properly when typed. They are OK once in the document, or if I use .
  11. Q: In Word 2000 only, non-Roman text appears as Latin in the dialog.
  12. Q: Why does my application wrap lines in the middle of words rather than at spaces when using symbol-encoded fonts such as SIL IPA or SIL Galatia? How can I fix this?
  13. Q: Why does my application prevent me from formatting my text with certain fonts?
  14. Q: Why does my text show up in some other font, even though the font in which the text is formatted is definitely installed?
  15. Q: When opening RTF or plaintext file in Microsoft Word, some “upper ANSI” characters display incorrectly as Arabic, Cyrillic, Hebrew, or CJK.
  16. Q: When opening plain text files, why are some paragraph-initial characters such as parenthesis, square bracket, wedge, chevron, etc, pointing the wrong way?
  17. Contact Us

Question: Why are some character shapes distorted in Windows XP?

Some character shapes may be distorted or garbled. Examples of fonts that are known to manifest these symptoms are SIL Ezra, Ramna Classique, and SIL Doulos NP.

Answer: The culprit appears to be the initial version of Microsoft’s font smoothing technology based on ClearType. To fix this problem, either switch to standard font smoothing, turn off font smoothing altogether, or apply Windows XP SP1.

More information: In Windows XP, there are three settings for font smoothing: , , and . There are a number of methods to control the selection, but the most obvious is from the Control Panel: .

If you want to turn off smoothing altogether, just uncheck this box. Otherwise, select instead of if you are having trouble with font display.

This problem is fixed with Windows XP Service Pack 1 (SP1).

Question: How can I confirm that the required fonts are installed?

Answer: It may sound silly, but I've often been asked to help with a font-related problem only to find out that the user doesn't have the required font installed! To save yourself some embarrassment, be sure to look for this before going further.

A tip for Microsoft Word users: You can find out whether Word thinks it has all the fonts required for a given document quite easily. With the document open, click , then select the tab and press  Font Substitution... . If Word is missing any fonts needed for this document, it will list them and tell you what fonts it is using for the missing ones.

Question: Why does my text sometimes appears as boxes when the font is changed?

You open a Word document, select some text, and change the font. Some of the characters now show up as boxes. For example, with this text:

changing the font to Times New Roman results in:

Answer: Boxes show up when there is a mismatch between Unicode characters in the document and those supported by the font. Specifically, the boxes represent characters not supported by the selected font.

One common situation is when the original text is formatted with a symbol-encoded font such as
SIL's legacy fonts (SIL Galatia, SIL Ezra, SIL IPA93). The SIL Encore font system can also be used to create symbol-encoded fonts.

When text is formatted with a symbol-encoded font, Word stores PUA characters (typically U+F020 .. U+F0FF) in the document. If you then change fonts to a standard font such as Times New Roman, boxes appear because Times New Roman doesn't have any characters in the PUA range.

There is an anomaly that may mask this behavior: Word doesn't lock in the PUA character codes until a document is saved. This means that you can type text in Wingdings and then successfully change the font to Times New Roman (and back!) as long as you haven't saved the document in the interrim.

If you have Peter Constable's Unicode Word Macros installed, you can select a block of text and click on the button and all the symbol-font characters will be folded to their codepage 1252 ANSI equivalents (in Times New Roman).

Symbol-encoded fonts are only one possible situation that can cause boxes. No single font covers all of Unicode, so you can have similar situations arise when trying to change fonts to one that doesn't support the Unicode characters needed by your document.

Question: Why does my text sometimes appears as question marks?

For example, I open up a document with this text:

and I use the clipboard or to transfer text to another application, but I end up with something that looks like:

??? ????? Unicode? ? ?? ?? ?????? ??????? "???????" ?? ? ???Unicode(???/?????)?? ???Unicode(???)?? ?? ????? ?? Unicode? ? Cos'è Unicode? ? ??????????? Kas tai yra Unikodas? ? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? Unicode? ?

Answer: Unicode data is being converted to 8-bit (usually via the system codepage) and the target 8-bit character set doesn't included the characters needed. Any characters not representable in the 8-bit character set will come through as question marks.

A common situation is trying to send data to an 8-bit legacy application through the clipboard or when the original text is either

  • not supported by default codepage (e.g., Cyrillic text on a Western Windows system), or
  • formatted with a symbol-encoded font (such as SIL Galatia, SIL Ezra, or SIL IPA93)

In both of these situations, the original text contains Unicode characters that are not representable in the target 8-bit character set, so the unrepresentable characters are changed to question marks.

Word 2000 (and later)

To fix this problem, at least for symbol-encoded text copied to the clipboard, Microsoft changed the way Word 2000 (and later) put such text on the clipboard: it magically maps the symbol-font PUA characters back down to 8-bit (usually by subtracting U+F000 from the Unicode codepoint). While this change fixes one thing (copying symbol-font text to legacy applications via the clipboard), it temporarily broke something find/replace (see this question). This was fixed in Word 2002.

Question: Most characters in my font are OK, but some display as a box or display from some other font.

Answer: When a few, but not all, characters are wrong, the most important things to know are:

  • the character codes involved
  • the application in use
  • the operating system version
  • the font being used

See subsequent questions for specific problems

Question: Characters 128 (x80), 142 (x8E), 158 (x9E), and/or 183 (xB7) display as a box or or display from some other font.

Answer: The problem fonts can be fixed by the Eurofix utility.

More Information These characters have led dual lives on Windows. That is, the Unicode characters to which these Windows characters map have changed over time. Characters 128, 142 and 158 changed with the introduction of Windows 98. Difficulties for character 183 started much longer ago – with the introduction of Unicode APIs in Windows NT: The 8-bit APIs have, since Windows 3.1, mapped character 183 to U+2219. Unfortunately, the Unicode APIs (introduced with Windows NT) map 183 to U+00B7.

Depending on the date and source of the font in question, and the particular application being used, one or more of these characters may show up as a box (▯) or, if the application uses font linking, as the Windows default character for the character in question (€, Ž, ž, or ·, respectively) but from some other font.

In all these cases, fix is simple: modify the font so the glyphs are double mapped. E.g., the glyph for character 183 should be accessed from both U+2219 and U+00B7. Before proceeding, be sure your font license permits making such changes.‎

For fonts generated by the SIL Encore Font System, the latest TypeCaster compiler already double-maps characters 128, 142, and 158, but not 183. Older versions of the SIL Encore Font System do not double-map any characters.

The font can be made to work by processing the font with the Eurofix program. Eurofix is part of Martin Hosken's Font-TTF package, available as a Perl module from  CPAN or as Windows executable from FontUtils. Eurofix is a command-line program and if you execute it without parameters you get this help message:

EUROFIX [-m num] infile outfile Edits a font to account for the change in codepage 1252 definition in Win98, NT5 and all things new then. -m specifies that the Mac hack should also be done.

The following changes are made to ensure that the glyphs at the two positions are the same, if possible:

For the Mac table

(-m may be for 240 or 211 depending on Apple or MS)

Copies are only made if there is no glyph there already.

U+0080 and U+20ACEuro sign
U+008E and U+017DZ caron
U+009E and U+017Ez caron
U+00B7 and U+2219Middle dot
glyph at U+0080 (in MS table) copied to numEuro sign

Question: In Microsoft Word 2000 or later, characters 157 (x9D), 253 (xFD) and 254 (xFE) don't show up at all, the font changes to something like Tahoma, and the typing cursor changes.

Answer: You have enabled a right-to-left language such as Hebrew or Arabic. Even though you are typing on an English keyboard, Word 2000 or later interprets these keystrokes via Codepage 1256 (the Arabic codepage):

There are three known workarounds:

  • Use to get the characters you want.
  • Associate your keyboard with the Icelandic Locale (but this will prevent English spell checking, etc.)
  • Disable all right-to-left languages in the applet.

Microsoft has been told of this problem and they insist that Word is "operating as intended".

0x9D (d157)U+009DU+200C zero width non-joiner
0xFD (d253)U+00FD “ý”U+200E LTR mark
0xFE (d254)U+00FE “þ”U+200F RTL mark

Question: Character 211 (xD3) displays as the pair of characters 237 (xED) + 210 (xD2)

Answer: This is a bug in Thai Windows 9x. The solution is to avoid this character or switch to alternate OS, e.g. Windows 2000.

Question: In Microsoft Publisher 2003, various characters from 131 (x83) to 159 (x9F) are displayed from some other font than the one selected. These display properly in Word 2003.

Answer: The specific list of characters is

As far as Unicode is concerned, these characters are actually in the Latin Extended A block. Publisher looks into the font to see what Unicode blocks the font claims to support, and not seeing Latin Extend A indicated, Publisher is finding another font to use for these characters.

If the font is from the SIL Encore Font system, and if you have the CST, etc., and can re-build the font with TypeCaster, the fix is to add, using a text editor like Notepad, the line:‎

Unicode 7‎

to the top of the CST file ‎—‎ up near the trans and encode commands, and‎ then recompile your fonts. (Unfortunately the CST will no longer be editable with the Encore CST Editor).‎

If the font isn't Encore, or you don't have the CST, you can use various‎ font editors to make the same change. Before proceeding, be sure your font license permits making such changes. What is needed is to set the bit corresponding to the Unicode "Latin Extended-A" in the UnicodeRange bits of the OS/2 table. Of course, some font editors are not very good at preserving the font structure and quality, so be careful. If you are comfortable installing Perl modules, you can use Martin Hosken's HackOS/2 script from the  Font:TTF package available.

Question: Using my custom font, miscellaneous (other than already mentioned) characters are not showing up properly when typed. They are OK once in the document, or if I use .

Answer: The most likely causes are your word processor's auto-correct and auto-format capabilities. By default, for example, Word will automatically change character code 243 (xF3) to 211 (xD3) at the begining of sentences, and if you have hacked in two unrelated shapes at these character points then you might be surprised when 211 shows up.

More and more, word processors are taking advantage of semantic information provided by the Unicode standard. In this example, Word knows there is a case relationship between U+00D3  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH ACUTE and U+00F3  LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH ACUTE, and thus Word is trying to be nice and correct your typing. But if you have hacked the font with shapes that don't have the same case relationships, you are just asking for trouble.

You can, of course, turn off most of Word's autocorrect features if you need to.

By the way: This is the main reason that most of SIL's legacy fonts (e.g., SIL Galatia, SIL Ezra, SIL IPA93) are created as symbol-encoded fonts.

Question: In Word 2000 only, non-Roman text appears as Latin in the dialog.

For example, I copy some SIL Ezra text from the document to the Find/Replace dialog, and it displays as Latin text. Furthermore, if I click the Find button Word cannot find the text, even though it is clearly in the document.

Answer: The problem occurs with symbol-encoded fonts such as SIL Galatia, SIL Ezra, and SIL IPA93. When characters in these fonts are stored in your document, Word stores Private Use Area codepoints (typically U+F020 .. U+F0FF). When copying such text to the clipboard, Word 2000 (and later) folds these character codes down to the Latin range. While this helps in some situations (such as copying data to 8-bit applications), the Find/Replace dialog wasn't upgraded to account for this change. This was fixed in Word 2002.

Question: Why does my application wrap lines in the middle of words rather than at spaces when using symbol-encoded fonts such as SIL IPA or SIL Galatia? How can I fix this?

Answer: The characters in a symbol-encoded font are assumed to be symbols, not letters, and the application makes no assumptions about what constitutes a word. In the case of Word 97 and later, the character U+F020 (the Unicode value that Word typically stores for the character in the symbol font that you think is a space) is no different than any other symbol-font character — it should no more be used as a linebreak location than any other.

The workaround for this is to replace all occurances of the character U+F020 with the character U+0020 in some other font (perhaps Times New Roman). In Word this can be done using a search and replace or, if you have Peter Constable's Unicode Word Macros installed, you can select a block of text and click on the button.

Question: Why does my application prevent me from formatting my text with certain fonts?

Answer: The most likely reason is that the font is incorrectly identifying what characters and scripts it supports.

More info: In the world of Unicode, no single font covers all the character ranges. Consider this situation:

I'm about to apply a font named SimSun to a bunch of text. Question is, what parts of the selected text ought to actually have the font applied? You may happen to know that SimSun is a east-Asian font and it doesn't cover Arabic or Greek or Cyrillic, so it probably shouldn't be used with those scripts.

A user-friendly app will prevent the user from applying fonts that don't cover the selected text. The typical way this is implemented is font slotting.

The basic idea is that the application partitions the supported scripts into groups or slots. Through various heuristic tests, the application figures out:

  • What slot any given text belongs to, and
  • What slots any given font covers.

Microsoft Word supports three slots. This becomes clear when you look at the complete Font Selection dialog:

Notice the slots for Latin text, Asian text, and Complex text.

Other applications use different strategies: Internet Explorer and Microsoft Publisher base their slots on Unicode ranges. You can easily see the nearly 40 slots for Internet Explorer by clicking and then clicking  Fonts... .

Every font has the opportunity to declare what scripts it supports, in terms of what Unicode ranges are supported and also what Windows codepages are supported. You can use Microsoft's  Font Properties Extension to find out what a font declares about itself. In the case of SimSun, we see:

What can go wrong? One of the most common problems is that fonts, especially older ones, do not always accurately declare what scripts are supported. Older applications didn't care and so it didn't really matter, but as we move towards Unicode it becomes more and more important that fonts make appropriate claims. See the previous question regarding Microsoft Publisher for an example.

The other problem we've seen is where bugs or magic in the application. For example, Microsoft Word appears to require fonts to declare support for Latin 1 Unicode range and codepage 1252.

Question: Why does my text show up in some other font, even though the font in which the text is formatted is definitely installed?

Answer: In the answer to the previous question I suggested that a user-friendly app will prevent the user from applying fonts that don't cover the selected text. A corollary to this is: a user-friendly app will find some font to use if the font you ask for doesn't support the characters in the text.

The mechanisms that systems use to locate a suitable font are varied, but generally go by the name of font linking (or font fixup). If you can't figure out any other reason for the incorrect font being displayed, then suspect font linking.

Unfortunately, font linking

  • occurs at both the application and OS level
  • uses mysterious heuristic algorithms
  • is done differently by different apps and systems
  • is not generally controllable.

Microsoft Office supports some fixup control in the registry. See details.

Question: When opening RTF or plaintext file in Microsoft Word, some “upper ANSI” characters display incorrectly as Arabic, Cyrillic, Hebrew, or CJK.

For example, here is what happens when I open the identical RTF file, on the same machine, with slightly different configurations:

Answer: The RTF spec is evolving, and some RTF writers such as Shoebox, Toolbox and Paratext output what is now considered to be underspecified or incomplete RTF.

The reading application, e.g., Word, has to make some heuristic guesses about what was intended. Among other factors, Word takes into account the languages that you have enabled in your Control Panel and in your Microsoft Office Language Settings applet.

Workarounds include:
  • Changing the Office Language Settings
  • Changing the default system codepage (Windows 2000 or newer)
  • Patching the RTF. Some people have found that opening the file in WordPad and saving it back out helps.

Question: When opening plain text files, why are some paragraph-initial characters such as parenthesis, square bracket, wedge, chevron, etc, pointing the wrong way?

Answer: This will be most common when opening documents that contain right-to-left text. Certain Unicode characters such as those mentioned in the question have to be "mirrored" if they occur in right-to-left text. Applications can usually tell which characters need to be mirrored by their context, i.e, what characters are around them. However paragraph-initial (or, in some applications, line-initial) characters are also affected by the overall paragraph (or line) direction (which may be different that the first bit of text in the paragraph).

Solutions for Word users: When opening a file, tell Word that document content is primarily right-to-left. In set . Then when you open the plaintext file, select . Or, if you have just the a few paragraph-initial characters that are wrong, you can use the macros in  RTL scripts in Microsoft Office to correct individual characters.

Contact Us

As our fonts and utilities are distributed at no cost, we are unable to provide a commercial level of personal technical support. We will, however, try to resolve problems that are reported to us.

We do hope that you will report problems so they can be addressed in future releases. Even if you are not having any specific problems, but have an idea on how this system could be improved, we want to hear your ideas and suggestions.

Please note that our software products are intended for use by experienced computer users. Installing and using them is not a trivial matter. The most effective technical support is usually provided by an experienced computer user who can personally sit down with you at your computer to troubleshoot the problem.

General troubleshooting information, including frequently asked questions, can be found in the documentation. Additional information is also available on the FAQ pages. If that fails to answer your question, please contact us by starting a topic on the  Language Software Community site.

We also have an email contact form, however we will responding to those messages only as staff resources allow. Please use the new community site before using the form.

Add a response to this article

Note: the opinions expressed in submitted contributions below do not necessarily reflect the opinions of our website.

"Russell Cairns", Wed, Feb 12, 2014 21:22 (CST) [modified by stephanie_smith on Thu, Feb 13, 2014 05:20 (CST)]

Strange happenings

My email address is [edited for privacy]

My office computer runs Windows 7 and Office 2010.

I find an annoyance when typing - the double quote keyboard key misbehaves - in both Word and Excel at least. If I type the double quote key nothing appears on the screen until I type the next character. If that charcater is a space then the double quote appears but it's not followed by a space. If the second character is a, e, i, o, u or y then that letter appears with a dieresis but no double quote character. Any other letter appears preceded by the double quote character. When closing a quote, again, typing the character doesn't make it appear until I type another key.

Is there something wrong with my installation or with this particular combination of operating system and application pacakge?

"Jaanika Erne", Sun, Jun 26, 2016 14:51 (CDT)

What script can be this:

³nÕLt`_©äH|Ół²²Į„ĀŚaĒ=Ä”ģÕUõX­×y_Žxu__–ŒØx_ƒ__¤_K·æ.Ēƒ£ˆ“É€äŖ¶+żŠÅU9Qh$¨åćm)b¦ė-_Q ćRė¸…˛@Ē¹ˇ_MWoWź Z~&KUuÖĆ_ō75_Å®r‘Ņ8g6üU_’UÓ_xJÅęµNÜT¸Ž4ņ¬0ļ~_I$ +ł±`,k k¾§Õ&°_µlßõ'(>‹6!]_µõŠ£QŪØ’Q“oM_˙‡ś˛bÄ_¢'ĀG.å~"_!@Ćł~»_w60a9&m_ KöŸ_œS˙Ņüī_e‹‰mŽéś¹_O]Ę<ŲIĻ$#Ø°R2ĒäŒõž`l,>_ų; š·ē˛ŃH__WĄ#_¼ģ¯’*VĮ?Ī-æ¯Kb7ӊ÷ōŁ?d ˜—

"Kady ", Sat, Sep 3, 2016 18:46 (CDT)

Very special characters

My special characters really are special they turn into boxes no matter what I do. But this only happens with the superscripts. What do I do?

Add a response to this article

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Provided by SIL's Non-Roman Script Initiative. Contact us here.

stephanie_smith, Thu, Feb 13, 2014 05:19 (CST)

Re: Strange happenings


It sounds like your computer is set up to use the wrong keyboard.

To check and/or change this, go to Start -> Control panel.

Under 'Clock, Language and Region', click on 'Change keyboard or other input method'.

This will bring up a pop-up box; select the 'Keyboards and Languages' tab and click the 'Change keyboards' box.

Your default setting will be listed here. I believe in Australia this should be 'English (United States)' unless you have a personal preference for a UK-style keyboard. If that's not what's showing in the default language field, click the dropdown and select it from the list.

If it's not in that list, stay in the pop-up box and click the 'Add' button on the right, then select 'English (United States)' from the list (you may need to expand the options using the [+] in order to be able to select it).

This will add this keyboard setting to your language options, so that you can select it from the default input languages dropdown above.

Click 'Apply' to apply your changes, then 'OK'.

I hope that helps! If it doesn't, send us an email to .

Best wishes,


martinpk, Mon, Jun 27, 2016 11:09 (CDT)

Re: What script can be this:

Hi Jaanika,

As you can see, the text has appeared garbled in your comment. It may require a font that specifically supports that writing system, or the encoding has become garbled in the copy and paste process. It might be better if you contact us using the link at the bottom of the page and send us a screenshot of what you have.

Thanks, Peter

martinpk, Tue, Sep 6, 2016 10:54 (CDT) [modified by martinpk on Tue, Sep 6, 2016 10:57 (CDT)]

Re: Very special characters

Hi Kady, Try contacting our user support through this form, so that they can write back directly to you:

   Absolutely Getting Rid of Formatting
Need to get rid of the formatting applied to a bunch of text? One of the easiest ways to do this is to use Notepad in conjunction with Word.

   Adding Fonts To the Context Menu
Context menus appear when you right-click on different items in Word. These menus can be edited to add items, such as common fonts you routinely use. You can then apply a font to selected text by right-clicking and using your newly modified Context menu.

   Adding Horizontal Lines at the Sides of a Word
Want to add a couple of horizontal lines at the sides of a word? It can be trickier than it sounds, but there are several ways you can get just the type of lines you want, exactly where you want them.

   Adding Vertical Lines at the Sides of a Word
Vertical lines are even easier to add around a word than are horizontal lines. There are a variety of methods you can use to add the lines, and only a few of them include any drawing.

   Applying Formatting in Lists
If you want to change the formatting applied to numbers or bullets in your lists, you'll appreciate the information in this tip. All you need to do is format the end-of-paragraph marker for each item in the list.

   AutoFormatting a Document
The AutoFormat feature of Word can be configured to make changes to a variety of conditions in your document. Here's how to change the settings so that it performs just the formatting changes you want.

   Automatic Blank Pages at the End of a Section
If you want to have a blank page at the end of a document section, you can insert one manually or you can use the technique described in this tip. The technique makes the added pages dynamic and easy to use.

   Automatically Formatting Text within Quotes
Some people use quote marks around text to make it stand out. At some point you may want to treat the quoted text differently, perhaps by making it bold. This tip presents two ways you can make the conversion.

   Basing Headers and Footers on the Previous Section
Word treats the headers and footers in a document independently, based on the section in which they appear. This means that the headers and footers in one section can be different from those in the previous section—or you can instruct Word to continue the headers and footers from the previous section. This tip examines some of the interactions that these settings can cause within a document.

   Breaking Lines in E-mail
If you are creating an e-mail in Word, or are creating text that you will paste into an e-mail document, you may want to limit the length of each line of that text. This is easy to manually do in short messages, but much more difficult and time consuming in longer messages. The handy macro in this tip can do the tedious work for you, rendering a plain text message with each line no longer than a specific length.

   Changing AutoFormatting Rules
The AutoFormat feature of Word can be configured to make changes to a variety of conditions in your document. Here's how to change the settings so that it performs just the formatting changes you want.

   Changing Text Case Many Times
Word provides a built-in shortcut to change the case of a text selection. Understanding how that shortcut works (and the other options available to you) can make some editing tasks easier.

   Changing Text Orientation
Word allows you to change the orientation of text contained within certain objects, such as AutoShapes, text boxes, and table cells. Here's how you do it.

   Changing the Default Font
Don't like the font that Word uses for a default in your new documents? You can pick a different font, but the way you make the selection is not as straightforward as you might expect.

   Columns within Text Boxes
Text boxes are a common design element for some documents. If you want a text box to contain multiple columns, you are out of luck—Word doesn't allow columns in text boxes. This tip describes how you can work around this limitation and get the design to appear just as you want it.

   Consistent Formatting Between Word Versions
When you upgrade from one version of Word to another, you may be surprised to find that your documents, all of a sudden, look a bit different than they used to. This can be attributed to several factors, discussed in this tip.

   Consistent Spacing
It is a good idea to make sure that the spacing following each sentence in your document is consistent. Here's a handy macro you can use to ensure that there is only a single space after each sentence.

   Copying Formats
Want to copy a format from one place to another without taking your hands off the keyboard? It's easy to do if you apply the shortcut keys in this tip.

   Creating a Numbered List
Numbered lists provide a 1-2-3 way of organizing your document. You can create numbered lists very easily using the techniques in this tip.

   Creating an Inline Heading
When settling on an overall design for your document, you need to decide how you want your headings to appear. If you want one of your heading levels to actually be "inline" with the paragraph it precedes, applying the styles and not messing up your Table of Contents can be tricky.

   Creating See-through Text Boxes
When laying out your document, you may want to use a text box that appears to be positioned over your text, but to be transparent so you can see what is behind the text box. Here's how to create just that type of element.

   Deleting Paragraph Borders
Got a document that has a border around some paragraphs? Here's how you can get rid of the border in the fastest way possible.

   Detailed Measurements
Want to know exactly how far something on the ruler is from the left and right margins of your document? It's easy to figure out with this esoteric shortcut.

   Double Indenting
Indenting a paragraph is easy in Word. In fact, the program provides shortcut keys that make it a snap. Indenting from both the left and right margins is not as easy, but you can make it easy by using the techniques described in this tip.

   Drop Shadows for Tables
When adding borders and shading to a document's elements, Word allows you to quickly add drop shadows to paragraphs, text boxes, and other objects. What you cannot easily do is to add a drop-shadow to a table. This tip explains different ways you can still achieve the desired results.

   Edits Cause Text to Switch to Odd Fonts
If you have problems with strange fonts showing up when you paste information into a document, it is helpful to understand the way Word treats formatting in whatever you are pasting. This tip explains what is going on and discusses how you can get the text appearance you want.

   Eliminating "Before Spacing" at the Top of a Page
When formatting paragraphs in Word, you have several options to adjust the spacing before, within, and at the end of each paragraph. Here's how to eliminate the extra space that can sometimes appear at the top of a page.

   Embedding TrueType Fonts
If you need to make sure that the fonts in your document can be used by another person or on a different system, you'll need to embed those fonts. Here's how to make the necessary configuration change.

   Embedding TrueType Fonts by Default
If you use TrueType fonts frequently, you might want to set Word to embed those fonts by default. Here's how to do it.

   Embedding TrueType Fonts in E-mails Composed in Word
When you use Word as your e-mail editor, it allows you to format the text of your e-mail messages using tools you are familiar with. Not all features relative to a document—such as embedding fonts—are available in the e-mail messages created with Word. This tip presents a way you can workaround this limitation.

   Ensuring Consistent Lines on Each Page
Need to have a specific number of lines on each page in your documents? What if those documents are subdocuments to a master document? This tip explains the ways that you can get the exact number of lines you need.

   Exactly Positioning Text
If you need to control exactly where text will appear on the page or relative to other text, you need to know about the ADVANCE field. Here's the low-down.

   Extending a Paragraph into the Left Margin
Word allows you to format a paragraph so that it extends into the left margin of the document. This is done by setting a negative indent for the paragraph.

   Extra Shaded Lines
Put a page break at the beginning of a shaded paragraph and you may be surprised at what you get on your printout. This tip examines the problem of extra shaded lines at the bottom of a printed page and what you can do to get rid of them.

   Finding Missing Fonts
When you open documents that were created a long time ago on a system far, far away (sounds almost epic, doesn't it?), you may discover that the documents contain fonts you no longer have installed on your system. You'll obviously want to change those fonts to new formatting, and doing so in a reasonable manner is the subject of this tip.

   Fixing Mismatched Bullets and Numbers
When you format bulleted lists or numbered lists, you may be surprised if some of the bullets or numbers don't match the other bullets or numbers. Careful attention to what you are actually formatting can help to cure this problem, as discussed here.

   Font Substitution Problems
When your document uses fonts that are not available on your computer system, Word substitutes other fonts that it feels are close to what the document calls for. This can cause problems, as outlined in this tip.

   Fonts Missing in Word
What are you to do if you find that you have no fonts available in Word, but they are available in other programs? There could be a couple of different reasons for the missing fonts, as described in this tip.

   Format Painter Shortcut
Need a way to copy formatting using the keyboard? Word has a great one, and it doesn't involve the Format Painter or the Clipboard.

   Formatted Merging
When you use the mail-merge capabilities of Word, the information merged takes on the formatting of your source document, not your data source. If you want to apply different formatting to some of the information you merge, you'll need to use the technique illustrated in this tip.

   Formatting All Headings At Once
If you need to apply a common formatting change to all the headings in your document, a quick way to do it is to use the Outline view of Word. This tip presents a simple technique that can save you loads of time.

   Formatting Differences between Word Versions
Create a document in one version of Word on one machine and then open that document in a different version of Word on a different machine and you may be surprised at the results. There can be lots of things that affect how the same document is rendered, displayed, and printed on each system. This tip discusses some of the things you can do to minimize the differences between systems.

   Formatting E-mail using AutoFormat
If you copy the text of an e-mail message to a Word document, you may notice that the formatting of the text leaves a lot to be desired. If you are faced with formatting text that originated in an e-mail, you'll appreciate the information presented in this tip.

   Formatting Fractions
Need to have a great looking fraction in a document? It's relatively easy to do if you apply the formatting techniques discussed in this tip.

   Getting Rid of Blue Squiggly Underlines
In an effort to make your writing better, Word uses "squiggly" underlines to mark things it thinks you may need to change. If you see some blue squiggly underlines on your screen, you may wonder what they are for and how to get rid of them. Here's the skinny.

   Highlighting Information Using Shading
Need to draw attention to some text in your document? You can do it by applying some fast and easy shading to your text.

   Hyperlink Formatting
Word, as you type, normally formats hyperlinks automatically. If you don't like the way that hyperlinks look in a particular document, you can make a simple change to the style used for hyperlinks and the change will be made throughout your document.

   Inserting Signature Lines
How to create signature lines in a Word document.

   Jumping to the End of Page after Enter
Imagine you start typing in a new document, and when you press the Enter key the cursor jumps a huge distance to the bottom of the page. What could be going on? The answer could be as simple as a single change in Word's page setup.

   Leaving Even Pages Blank
Want to print your document only on odd-numbered pages in a printout? There are a couple of things you can try, as detailed in this tip.

   Letters and Numbers in Page Numbers
A common task is to add page numbers to document headers and footers. If you want those page numbers to include more than just digits, you can easily accomplish your desires.

   Lines that Don't Change When You Type
Create a form in Word and you will invariably be faced with the need to places fill-in-the-blank lines in the document. If you want those lines to remain as people fill in the form, there are a couple of ways you can format the document.

   Maintaining Formatting when Inserting Documents
Word allows you to easily insert the contents of one document into another. Doing so, however, may result in unintended results as the formatting of what you insert may look nothing like the original document. Here's why that happens and what you can do about it.

   Margin Notes in Word
Some types of documents rely upon margin notes to the left or right of your main text. Getting these to appear in Word can be tricky, as there is no built-in function that creates them. This tip discusses one approach you can use, which involves tables.

   Margins for All Documents Changing
Have you had the margins in a group of documents change without you knowingly doing anything? This tip explores some reasons this might happen and what you can do to keep your margin settings consistent.

   Mixing Column Formats On a Page
Want to switch the number of columns used for your text, in the middle of a page? You can do this very easily by following the steps in this tip.

   Noting Formatting Inconsistencies
When you create a document, Word is constantly checking behind the scenes to make sure that what you type makes sense. Tools such as spelling and grammar checking are not the only way this is done. You can also have Word check for formatting inconsistencies.

   Precise Ruler Adjustments
When adjusting the position of things on the ruler (like tab stops), you can use the Alt key to get very precise in your adjustments. Just hold down the key as you drag items with the mouse, and you can immediately see what is happening.

   Problems Using Words as Bullets
If you know the secret, you can use actual words as "bullets" in a bulleted list. The built-in bulleted lists in Word aren't the way to achieve what you want to do, and this tip explains why. It also provides a macro that you can use to apply the formatting you want to the list.

   Quickly Adjusting Paragraph Spacing
Need to easily adjust the vertical spacing that follows a paragraph? You can do it using dialog boxes or you can create your own shortcuts, as described in this tip.

   Quickly Changing Font Sizes
A quick little shortcut can help you easily step through different font sizes for whatever text you've selected. Word provides a shortcut for increasing font sizes and another for decreasing font sizes.

   Quickly Displaying Formatting Specs
It's easy to apply formatting to text, but often hard (after the fact) to know exactly what was done. If you often need to know what formatting is applied to a text selection, you'll love the shortcuts described in this tip.

   Quickly Formatting Multiple Documents
Need to format a bunch of documents so they all look the same? If the documents use styles, doing the formatting is relatively easy, as described in this tip.

   Read-Only Embedded Fonts
If you receive a document from somebody else, you might not be able to edit it if the document contains fonts that you don't have installed on your system. In this case, it is helpful to understand how Word views those fonts.

   Removing the Box from a Text Box
Insert a text box, and it is automatically formatted to have a border around it. Getting rid of the border is easy, if you follow the steps in this tip.

   Reversed Bolding
If you paste information from one document into another, you may be surprised at the results. If your text changes from regular to bold (and vice versa), you'll be interested in the solutions discussed in this tip.

   Rotating a Page of Text
Beginning with Word 2000, you can rotate a page of text by using the Far East language support built into Word. This tip shows how easy it is to implement this little trick.

   Setting the Starting Line Number
You are not limited to starting the line numbering in a document with 1. You can, instead, start the numbering at any other value you want. This is real handy when you have multiple documents that need to be printed, in order.

   Setting the Wrapping Default for Objects
Want to have objects such as text boxes and shapes always appear using some formatting you like? Here are some ideas on setting the defaults according to your needs.

   Sign-in Sheets
Printed sign-in sheets are a staple at many meetings and seminars. Word can create them lickety-split just by using a few tabs. It's all in the setup of your styles, as this tip illustrates.

   Talking to Yourself
Need to keep notes about a document, but you don't want others to see those notes either on-screen or on-paper? Here's an easy way to add helpful notes throughout your document.

   The Standard on the Ruler
Need to know all there is to know about the Ruler? This tip leads to a valuable Word MVP article on the subject.

   Turning Off Proofing for Superscripts
When you add superscripts to words in your document, you may not want those superscripts to be spell-checked. Here's how to disable the checking of your superscripts.

   Turning Off Smart Quotes for Specific Styles
Smart quotes can be helpful in making a great-looking document, but at times they can be a real pain. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could control smart quotes based on the style of the paragraph you are creating? Unfortunately, this isn't currently possible in Word.

   Two Page Numbering Schemes in the Same Document
Word is great at numbering pages if you only need a single, consistent numbering scheme through the document. If you need two separate numbering schemes, you need to apply some workarounds described in this tip.

   Unable to Use Bulleting and Numbering
Got a document where you just can't get bullets and numbering to work right? It could be that your document is corrupted. This tip discusses some of the things you can do to figure out the problem.

   Understanding Paragraph Alignment
One of the most basic ways to align paragraphs is to set the alignment used for the text in the paragraph. Word provides five different ways to align text, as discussed in this tip.

   Understanding Picas
Word can understand many different measurement units. One common unit understood by Word is the pica, described in this tip.

   Understanding Point Sizes
Points are the common unit of measure for typefaces in the printing industry. They are also used quite often in Word. Here's what they are all about.

   Understanding Strikethrough Formatting
The strikethrough text feature in Word can be used as part of your document or to indicate that changes have been made to the text. This tip looks at when strikethroughs might appear and how you can use them.

   Using a Macro to Change the Formatting of All Instances of a Word
If you have a word that you need to make sure is formatted the same way throughout your document, there are several ways you can approach the task. One is to format manually, another is to use a style, and the third method (described in this tip) is to use a macro to handle the formatting.

   Using Chapter Numbers with Page Numbers
Do you need to add page numbers that include, as well, a chapter number? It's relatively easy to do, as described in this tip.

   Using Parallel Columns
Users of WordPerfect know what parallel columns are. There is no such capability in Word, but there are ways you can achieve the same end results.

   Using Text As a Page Border
Word allows you to add page borders to a document, but you might find the options in this area too limiting. What if you want to create your own page borders or use text as a page border? This tip explains how you can accomplish your designs.

   Watermarks in Columns
If you are creating small flyers (two per page), you may want to include a watermark graphic in the background of each of the flyers. Here's some ideas on how you can accomplish this task.

   Working with Other People's Files
When you get files from other people, you may want a quick way to apply your formatting to their text. Provided that the document you receive is formatted using styles, the application of your own formatting is easy when you use the technique described in this tip.

   X-ing Out Text
You can easily use strikethrough formatting to show deleted text in a document. What if you want to actually overprint text with an "x" to show your deletions? There are a couple of ways you can implement this type of character handling.

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